Hematuria simply means blood in the urine.

This can be visible to the naked eye, known as ‘gross’ hematuria or found microscopically, known as ‘microscopic’ hematuria. Microscopic hematuria is a very common lab finding, particularly in women.

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Some common causes of hematuria are:

  • Urinary tract infection
  • Kidney or bladder stones
  • Kidney disease
  • Extreme exercise
  • Straining
  • Certain medications and foods
  • Vaginal atrophy
  • Urologic malignancies including bladder cancer, ureteral cancer and kidney cancer


History and physical exam

Your provider will ask you questions about urinary symptoms, history of kidney stones, recent imaging, exposures and smoking history and a focused physical exam.

Imaging Studies

A CT scan or ultrasound or MRI may be used to assess the kidney and ureters for causes.

Urine Tests

  • Urine culture or PCR to check for infection
  • Cytology to look microscopically for cancer cells
  • FISH analysis


A flexible scope called a cystoscope is inserted into the urethra and advanced into the bladder to look for tumors. This is an awake procedure that takes approximately 2 minutes.

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